Article | European Journal for Research on the Education and Learning of Adults | Participatory perspectives for the low skilled and the low educated: how can media literacy influence the social and economic participation of the low skilled and the low educated?

Title:
Participatory perspectives for the low skilled and the low educated: how can media literacy influence the social and economic participation of the low skilled and the low educated?
Author:
Paulo Moekotte: Open University of the Netherlands, the Netherlands Saskia Brand-Gruwel: Open University of the Netherlands, the Netherlands Henk Ritzen: Saxion University of Applied Sciences, the Netherlands
DOI:
10.3384/rela.2000-7426.rela9115
Read article:
Full article (pdf)
Year:
2017
Volume:
8
Issue:
1
Pages:
103-125
No. of pages:
23
Publication type:
Article
Published:
2017-04-03


We assume that social media use contributes to employability and sociality and media literacy complements a basic set of skills. Especially the low skilled and low educated lack media literacy, which contributes to their precarious situation and increases a participation gap. A database search for peer reviewed articles covering effective elements of media literacy did not return any useful results. The retrieved literature was scarce and media literacy concepts were inconclusive, conflated or ambivalent. We then broadened our scope, using a snow ball technique and Harzing’s Publish and Perish for control purposes. This approach lead to literature indicating that self-presentation and self-profiling are important literacy practices, involving knowledge and skills related to participation in social and economic contexts and understanding of the relations between sociality, employability and networks. Media literacy is best approached as hands-on, situated and experiential, taught in a democratic and critical fashion and related to the attitudes and perspective of the low educated and the low skilled. There is however no clear answer what the complementary role of informal learning is and how literacy related skills and knowledge demanded for lifelong learning may change during the life course. It is also important that policies focussing on inclusion and participation broaden their perspective beyond individualistic notions and , consider the influence of structuralizing mechanisms that create inequality and extend their explanations beyond those framed by economic theories, models and categories.

Keywords: Media literacy; low skilled; low educated; social participation; economic participation

Volume 8, Issue: 1, Article 6, 2017

Author:
Paulo Moekotte, Saskia Brand-Gruwel, Henk Ritzen
Title:
Participatory perspectives for the low skilled and the low educated: how can media literacy influence the social and economic participation of the low skilled and the low educated?:
DOI:
10.3384/rela.2000-7426.rela9115
References:

Akkermans, J., Brenninkmeijer, V., Huibers, M., & Blonk, R. W. (2013). Competencies for the contemporary career: Development and preliminary validation of the Career Competencies Questionnaire. Journal of Career Development, 40(3), 245-267. DOI: 10.1177/0894845312467501

Ala-Mutka, K. (2011). Mapping digital competence: Towards a conceptual understanding. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.Retrieved from http://www.jrc ec.europa.eu.

Aufderheide, P. (1993). Media literacy. A report of the National Leadership Conference on Media Literacy. Washington: Aspen Institute.

Aufderheide, P. (1993). Media literacy. A report of the National Leadership Conference on Media Literacy. Washington, DC: Aspen Institute.

Autor, D. H., Levy, F., & Murnane, R. J. (2003). The skill content of recent technological change: An empirical exploration. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118(4), 1279-1333. DOI: 10.1162/003355303322552801

Bawden, D. (2001). Information and digital literacies: A review of concepts. Journal of Documentation, 57(2), 218-259. DOI: 10.1108/EUM0000000007083

Bawden, D. (2008). Origins and concepts of digital literacy. In C. Lankshear & M. Knobel, (Eds.), Digital literacies: Concepts, policies and practices (Vol. 30, pp. 17-32). New York: Peter Lang.

Boonaert, T., & Vettenburg, N. (2011). Young people’s internet use: Divided or diversified? Childhood, 18(1), 54-66. DOI: 10.1177/0907568210367524

Borghans, L., & Ter Weel, B. T. (2003). Are Computer Skills the New Basic Skills? The Returns to Computer, Writing and Math Skills in Britain. IZA Discussion Papers 751, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

Borghans, L., Ter Weel, B. T., & Weinberg, B. A. (2014). People skills and the labor-market outcomes of underrepresented groups. ILR Review, 67(2), 287-334. DOI: 10.1177/001979391406700202

boyd, d. (2014). Its complicated: The social lives of networked teens. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Brown, A. D., Bimrose, J., & Merrill, B. (2014). Navigating difficult waters: learning for career and labour market transitions. Luxembourg: CEDEFOP.

Buchholz, S., & Kolb, K. (2011). Selective Flexibilization and Deregulation of the Labour Market: The German Answer to Increased Needs for Employment Flexibility and Its Consequences for Social Inequalities. In H. Blossfeld, S. Buchholz, D. Hofäcker, & K. Kolb (Eds.), Globalized labour markets and social inequality in Europe (pp. 25-45). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: 10.1057/9780230319882_2

Buckingham, D. (2007). Digital media literacies: Rethinking media education in the age of the Internet. Research in Comparative and International Education, 2(1), 43-55. DOI: 10.2304/rcie.2007.2.1.43

Buckingham, D. (2013). Media education: Literacy, learning and contemporary culture. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Buisman, M., & Houtkoop, W. A. (2014). Laaggeletterdheid in kaart [Charting low literacy]. ’s-Hertogenbosch: Expertisecentrum Beroepsonderwijs.

Buisman, M., Allen, J., Fouarge, D., Houtkoop, W., & Van der Velden, R. (2013). PIAAC Kernvaardigheden voor werk en leven. Resultaten van de Nederlandse survey 2012 [PIAAC Core skills for work and life: Results of the Dutch survey 2012]. ‘s Hertogenbosch: Expertisecentrum Beroepsonderwijs.

Carpentier, N. (2009). Participation is not enough: The conditions of possibility of mediated participatory practices. European Journal of Communication, 24(4), 407-420. DOI: 10.1177/0267323109345682

Carpentier, N., & De Cleen, B. (Eds.). (2009). Participation and media production: Critical reflections on content creation. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Celot, P. (2012). EAVI studies on media literacy in Europe. Medijske Studije, 3(6), 76-81.

Christ, W. G., & Potter, W. J. (1998). Media literacy, media education, and the academy. Journal of Communication, 48(1), 5-15. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.1998.tb02733.x

Collins, J., & Blot, R. K. (2003). Literacy and literacies: Texts, power, and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511486661

Cooley, C. H. (1897). The Process of Social Change. Political Science Quarterly, 12(1), 63-81. DOI: 10.2307/2140028

De Grip, A., Loo, J., & Sanders, J. (2004). The industry employability index: Taking account of supply and demand characteristics. International Labour Review, 143(3), 211-233. DOI: 10.1111/j.1564-913X.2004.tb00269.x

De Haan, J., & Adrichem, L. (2008). Meedoen of buitenspel staan in de digitale leefwereld. Van digitale uitsluiting naar e-inclusie [Participation or standing on the side line in the digital world: From digital exclusion to e-inclusion]. In V. Frissen & M. Slot (Eds.), De duurzame informatiesamenleving[The sustainable knowledge society] (pp. 85-100). The Hague: The Netherlands Institute for Social Research. 

De Haan, J., & Sonck, N. (2012). Digital skills in perspective: A critical reflection on research and policy. Medijske Studije, 3(6), 125-137.

Derksen, M., & Beaulieu, A. (2011). Social technology. In I. C. Jarvie & J. Zamora-Bonilla (Eds.), The Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science (pp. 703-719). DOI: 10.4135/9781473913868.n38

Drotner, K. (2008). Leisure is hard work: Digital practices and future competencies. In D. Buckingham (Ed.), Youth, identity, and digital media (pp. 167-184). Cambridge, MA: MIT University Press. Retrieved from https://mitpress.mit.edu/sites/default/files/9780262524834_Youth_Identity_and_Digital_Media.pdf

Ester, P., & Vinken, H. (2003). Debating civil society on the fear for civic decline and hope for the internet alternative. International Sociology, 18(4), 659-680. DOI: 10.1177/0268580903184002

European Commission. (2007). A European approach to media literacy in the digital environment. COM(2007) 833 Final. Brussels: European Commission.

Fouarge, D., Schils, T., & De Grip, A. (2013). Why do low-educated workers invest less in further training? Applied Economics, 45(18), 2587-2601. DOI: 10.1080/00036846.2012.671926

Fraillon, J., Schulz, W., & Ainley, J. (2013). International computer and information literacy study: Assessment framework. Retrieved from https://www.acer.edu.au/files/ICILS_2013_Framework.pdf

Frey, C. B., & Osborne, M. A. (2013). The future of employment: how susceptible are jobs to computerisation?(2013). Working paper. University of Oxford. Retrieved from http://www. oxfordmartin. ox. ac. uk/downloads/academic/The_ Future_of_Employment. pdf

Green, A. E., De Hoyos, M., Barnes, S. A., Owen, D., Baldauf, B., & Behle, H. (2013). Literature review on employability, inclusion and ICT, Report 1: The concept of employability, with a specific focus on young people, older workers and migrants. Seville: European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Prospective Technological Studies.

Grimes, S. M., & Fields, D. A. (2012). Kids online: A new research agenda for understanding social networking forums. New York: The Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop.

Grotlüschen, A., Mallows, D., Reder, S., & Sabatini, J. (2016). "Adults with Low Proficiency in Literacy or Numeracy", OECD Education Working Papers, No. 131. Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI: 10.1787/5jm0v44bnmnx-en

Haita, C., Kureková, L., & Beblavý, M. (2013). Conceptualizing Low-Skillness: A New Approach. Sociológia-Slovak Sociological Review, 3, 247-266.

Heckhausen, J., Wrosch, C., & Schulz, R. (2010). A motivational theory of life-span development. Psychological Review, 117(1), 32-60. DOI: 10.1037/a0017668

Hrastinski, S., Keller, C., & Lindh, J. (2009). Is e-learning used for enhancing administration or learning? On the implications of organisational culture. In M. Stanfield & T. Connolly (Eds.), Institutional transformation through best practices in virtual campus development: Advancing e-Learning policies (pp. 55-64). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-358-6.ch004

Ito, M., Horst, H. A., Bittanti, boyd, d., M., Stephenson, B. H., Lange, P. G., Pascoe, C. J., & Robinson, L. (2008). Living and learning with new media: Summary of findings from the Digital Youth Project. Chicago: The MacArthur Foundation

Jenkins, H. Ed. (2006). Confronting The Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for The 21st Century. Retrieved from http://digitallearning.macfound.org/atf/cf/%7B7E45C7E0-A3E0-4B89-AC9CE807E1B0AE4E%7D/jenkins_white_paper.pdf

Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59-68. DOI: 10.1016/j.bushor.2009.09.003

Kerstiens, G. (1975). Keynote address: The new learners: Focus for the Future. In R. Sugimoto (Ed.), College learning skills today and tomorrowland: Proceedings of the annual conference of the Western College Reading Association (Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 1-8). doi:10.1080/24699365.1975.11669542

Kirschner, P. A., Caniëls, M., & Bijker, M. (2012). Informeel leren in Nederland. Deelname en kenmerken van mensen met een VMBO en MBO vooropleiding [Informal learning in the Netherlands. Participation and characteristics of people with a primary or secondary vocational education level]. Heerlen: Open University of the Netherlands.

Langer, J. A. (2011). Envisioning knowledge: Building literacy in the academic disciplines. New York: Teachers College Press.

Livingstone, S. & Bulger, M. (2013). Media literacy research and policy in Europe: a review of recent, current and planned activities (Report of a meeting of the COST Action, Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies). Retrieved from: http://www.lse.ac.uk/media@lse/documents/MPP/COST-Media-literacy-research-and-policy-in-Europe-final.pdf

Livingstone, S. (2003). The changing nature and uses of media literacy. Media@LSE electronic working papers, 4. Media@lse, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK. Retreived from http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/13476/

Livingstone, S. (2004). What is media literacy? Intermedia, 32(3), 18-20.

Livingstone, S., Mascheroni, G., Dreier, M., Chaudron, S., & Lagae, K. (2015). How parents of young children manage digital devices at home: the role of income, education and parental style. EU Kids Online. London: London School of Economics and Political Science.

Livingstone, S., Papaioannou, T., Grandío Pérez, M. D. M., & Wijnen, C. W. (2012). Editors Note-Critical Insights in European Media Literacy Research and Policy. Medijske studije, 3(6), 2-12.

Livingstone, S., Van Couvering, E., & Thumim, N. (2005). Adult media literacy: A review of the research literature. London: London School of Economics and Political Science.

Lonsdale, M., & McCurry, D. (2004). Literacy in the new millennium. Adelaide, Australia: National Centre for Vocational Education Research.

Lovink, G. (2012). Networks without a cause: A critique of social media. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Maes, R. (2003). Informatiemanagement in kaart gebracht [Charting information management]. Maandblad voor Accountancy en Bedrijfseconomie, 77(11), 521-529.

Mariën, I. Heyman, R., Salemink, K. & Van Audenhove, l. (2016). Digital by Default Consequences, Casualties and Coping Strategies. In J. Servaes & T. Oyedemi (Eds.), Social inequalities, media, and communication: Theory and roots (pp. 154-170). London: Lexington Books.

Markauskaite, L. (2006). Towards an integrated analytical framework of information and communications technology literacy: From intended to implemented and achieved dimensions. Information Research, 11(3), paper 252. Retrieved from http://InformationR.net/ir/11-3/paper252.html.

Martens, H. (2010). Evaluating media literacy education: Concepts, theories and future directions. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 2(1), 1-22.

Martínez-Cerdá, J. F., Torrent-Sellens, J., & Pegurer Caprino, M. (2015). Media Literacy, Co-Innovation, and Productivity: Examples from European Countries. In M.N. Yildiz & J. Keengwe, (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Media Literacy in the Digital Age (pp. 374-404). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Maxwell, N. L. (2006). The Working Life: The Labor Market for Workers in Low-Skilled Jobs. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.

Meelissen, M. R. M., Punter, R. A., & Drent, M. (2014). Digitale geletterdheid van leerlingen in het tweede leerjaar van het voortgezet onderwijs. Nederlandse resultaten van ICILS-2013 [Digital literacy of students in the second year of secondary education: Dutch results of the ICILS 2013]. Retrieved from doc.utwente.nl/93281/1/Rapport%20ICILS-2013_Nederland.pdf

Moekotte, P. B. F., Brand-Gruwel, S., Ritzen, H. T. M., & Simons, P. R. J. (2015). Early school leavers’ attitudes towards online self-presentation and explicit participation. Computers in Human Behaviour, 49, 171-184. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.01.047

Moore, P. (2006). Information literacy in the New Zealand education sector. School Libraries Worldwide, 12(1), 1.

Myers, J. (2006). Literacy practices and digital literacies: A commentary on Swenson, Rozema, Young, McGrail, and Whitin. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 6(1), 61-66.

OECD. Social and welfare issues. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/social/inequality.htm

Papen, U. (2005). Adult literacy as social practice: More than skills. London: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9780203347119

Paus-Hasebrink, I., Lampert, C., & Hasebrink, U. (2009). Social network sites - Challenges for media literacy. Internationale EU Kids Online Konferenz Juni 2009. London: London School of Economics and Political Science.

Pedró, F. (2010). Are the New Millennium learners making their grades? Technology use and educational performance in PISA. Paris: OECD Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI).

Pfaff-Rüdiger, S., Riesmeyer, C., & Kümpel, A. (2012). Media literacy and developmental tasks: A case study in Germany. Medijske studije, 3(6), 42-56.

Preece, J., & Shneiderman, B. (2009). The reader-to-leader framework: Motivating technology-mediated social participation. AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction, 1(1), 13-32.

Preenen, P., Verbiest, S., Van Vianen, A., & Van Wijk, E. (2015). Informal learning of temporary agency workers in low-skill jobs: The role of self-profiling, career control, and job challenge. Career Development International, 20(4), 339-362. DOI: 10.1108/CDI-12-2013-0158

Redecker, C., Leis, M., Leendertse, M., Punie, Y., Gijsbers, G., Kirschner, P., Stoyanov, S. & Hoogveld, B. (2010). The future of learning: New ways to learn new skills for future jobs. Results from an online expert consultation. Technical Note JRC60869, JRC-IPTS, Seville.

Schäfer, K. (2008). Leisure is hard work: Digital practices and future competencies. In D. Buckingham (Ed.), Youth, identity, and digital media (pp. 167-184). Cambridge: MIT Press.

 Stark, D. (2000). For a Sociology of Worth. Keynote Address for the Meetings of the European Association of Evolutionary Political Economy. Berlin, 2.-4. November 2000. Retrieved from http://www.coi.columbia.edu/pdf/stark_fsw.pdf               

Stauber, B., & Walther, A. (2006). De-standardised pathways to adulthood: European perspectives on informal learning in informal networks. Papers: Revista de Sociologia, 79, 241-262. DOI: 10.5565/rev/papers/v79n0.835

Strano, M. M. (2008). User descriptions and interpretations of self-presentation through Facebook profile images. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 2(2), 5.

Street, B. (2003). What’s “new” in New Literacy Studies? Critical approaches to literacy in theory and practice. Current Issues in Comparative Education, 5(2), 77-91.

Sunstein, C. R. (2001). Echo chambers: Bush v. Gore, impeachment, and beyond. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Suthers, D. D. (2006). Technology affordances for intersubjective meaning making: A research agenda for CSCL. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 1(3), 315-337. DOI: 10.1007/s11412-006-9660-y

The New London Group. (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures. Harvard Educational Review, 66(1), 60-92. DOI: 10.17763/haer.66.1.17370n67v22j160u

Therborn, G. (2009). The killing fields of inequality. Soundings, (42), 20-32. DOI: 10.3898/136266209789024960

Tilly, C. (1998). Durable inequality. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Toner, P. (2011). Workforce Skills and Innovation: An Overview of major themes in the literature. OECD Education Working Paper series (55). Paris: OECD.

Turkle, S. (2004). The fellowship of the microchip: Global technologies As evocative objects. In M. Suárez-Orozco & D. B. Qin-Hilliard (Eds.), Globalization: Culture and education in the new millennium (pp. 97-113). Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2011). Online communication among adolescents: An integrated model of its attraction, opportunities, and risks. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48(2), 121-127. DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.08.020

Valsamis, D., De Coen, A., & Vanoeteren, V. (2016). The Future of Work: Digitalisation in the US Labour Market. PE 578.959. Brussels: Policy Department A: Economic and Scientific Policy, European Parliament.

Van Deursen, A. J. A. M., & Van Dijk, J. A. G. M. (2012). Trendrapport Internetgebruik 2012. Een Nederlands en Europees perspectief [Internet Trend Report 2012. A Dutch and European perspective]. Enschede: Twente University.

Van Deursen, A. J. A. M., & Van Dijk, J. A. G. M. (2014). The digital divide shifts to differences in usage. New Media & Society, 16(3), 507-526. DOI: 10.1177/1461444813487959

Van Dijck, J., & Poell, T. (2013). Understanding social media logic. Media and Communication, 1(1), 2-14. DOI: 10.17645/mac.v1i1.70

Van Dijk, J. A. G. M. (2009). One Europe, digitally divided. In A. Chadwick & P. N. Howard (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Internet Politics (pp. 288-305). London: Routledge.

Van Dijk, J. A. G. M. (2013). A theory of the digital divide. In M. Ragnedda & G. W. Muschert, (Eds), The digital divide: The Internet and social inequality in international perspective (Vol. 73, pp 29-51). New York: Routledge.

Van Dijk, J. A. G. M., & Van Deursen, A. J. A. M. (2010, June). Traditional media skills and digital media skills: Much of a difference. Paper presented at 60th Annual International Communication Association (ICA) Conference, Singapore.

Verdegem, P., & Verhoest, P. (2009). Profiling the non-user: Rethinking policy initiatives stimulating ICT acceptance. Telecommunications Policy, 33(10), 642-652. DOI: 10.1016/j.telpol.2009.08.009

Walther, A., Stauber, B., & Pohl, A. (2005). Informal networks in youth transitions in West Germany: Biographical resource or reproduction of social inequality? Journal of Youth Studies, 8(2), 221-240. DOI: 10.1080/13676260500149345

Wohlin, C. (2014, May). Guidelines for snowballing in systematic literature studies and a replication in software engineering. In Proceedings of the 18th international conference on evaluation and assessment in software engineering (p. 38). ACM. DOI: 10.1145/2601248.2601268

Wulff Pabilonia, S. & Zoghi, C. (2013, May). Which job skills are complementary to IT adoption and use? Paper presented at the Society of Labor Economists Annual Meeting, Boston, US. Retrieved from http://www.sole-jole.org/13106.pdf.

Zinnbauer, D. (2007). What can social capital and ICT do for inclusion (Policy brief). Luxemburg: Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, European Commission.

Volume 8, Issue: 1, Article 6, 2017

Author:
Paulo Moekotte, Saskia Brand-Gruwel, Henk Ritzen
Title:
Participatory perspectives for the low skilled and the low educated: how can media literacy influence the social and economic participation of the low skilled and the low educated?:
DOI:
10.3384/rela.2000-7426.rela9115
Note: the following are taken directly from CrossRef
Citations:
No citations available at the moment
Export in BibTex, RIS or text