Interrogating professional power and recognition of specialized knowledge: a class analysis
D. W. Livingstone: University of Toronto, Canada
Read article:
Full article (pdf)
No. of pages:
Publication type:

This article explores ignored dimensions of relations between professional power and recognition of specialized knowledge, specifically the relations of professional class positions and workplace power with advanced professional schooling and further education. Professional class positions, mediated by association and union memberships, are posited as and confirmed to be important determinants of both advanced educational certification and further education. The evidence is drawn from unique national surveys of the working conditions and learning practices of entire Canadian labour force including especially a 2004 survey with a large number of professional respondents. The major implication is that class positions should be incorporated in further studies of professional power generally and variations in professional learning in particular.

Keywords: Professional classes; workplace power; professionals’ specialized knowledge; further education

Volume 5, Issue: 1, Article 2, 2014

D. W. Livingstone
Interrogating professional power and recognition of specialized knowledge: a class analysis:
    Adams, T. (2010). Profession: A useful concept for sociological analysis? Canadian Review of Sociology, 47(1), 49–70. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-618X.2010.01222.x
  • Bell, D. (1976). The coming of post-industrial society: A venture in social forecasting. New York: Basic.
  • Carey, M. (2007). White-collar proletariat? Braverman, the deskilling/upskilling of social work and the paradoxical life of the Agency Care Manager. Journal of Social Work, 7(1), 93–114. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1468017307075992
  • Chan, K., Lai, G., Ko, Y., & Boey, K. (2000). Work stress among six professional groups: The Singapore experience. Social Science and Medicine, 50(10), 1415–1432. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00397-4
  • Cheetham, G., & Chivers, G. (2001). How professionals learn in practice: An investigation of informal learning amongst people working in professions. Journal of European Industrial Training, 25(5), 246–292. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090590110395870
  • Clark, R., Livingstone, D.W., & Smaller, H. (2012). Teacher Learning and Power in the Knowledge Society. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6091-973-2
  • Clement,W., & Myles, J. (1994). Relations of ruling: Class and gender in postindustrial societies. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press.
  • Cortada, J. (1998). Rise of the knowledge worker. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  • Crozier, M. (1964). The bureaucratic phenomenon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Derber, C., Schwartz, W., & Magrass, Y. (1990). Power in the highest degree: Professionals and the rise of a new mandarin order. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Dickens, G., Sugarman, P., & Rogers, G. (2005). Nurses perceptions of the working environment: A UK independent sector study. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 12(3), 297–302. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2850.2005.00836.x
  • Easthope, C., & Easthope, G. (2000). Intensification, extension and complexity of teachers workload. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 21(1), 43–58. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01425690095153
  • Ehrenreich, B., & Ehrenreich, J. (1978). The professional-managerial class. In P. Walker (ed.). Between labor and capital. Montreal: Black Rose Books.
  • Evetts, J. (2002). New directions in state and international professional occupations: Discretionary decision-making and acquired regulation. Work, Employment and Society, 16(2), 341-353. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095001702400426875
  • Evetts, J. (2003). The sociological analysis of professionalism: Occupational change in the modern world. International Sociology, 18(2), 395–415. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0268580903018002005
  • Friedson, E. (1988). Professional Powers: A Study of the Institutionalization of Formal Knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Haug, M. (1973). Deprofessionalization: An alternate hypothesis for the future. Sociological Review Monograph, 20(1), 195–211.
  • Haug, M. (1975). The deprofessionalization of everyone? Sociological Focus, 8(3), 197–213. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00380237.1975.10570899
  • Johnson, T. (1977). The professions in the class structure. In R. Scase (ed.). Industrial society, class, cleavage and control. (pp. 93-110). London: Allen & Unwin.
  • Krause, E. (1996). Death of guilds: Professions, states and the advance of capitalism, 1930 to the present. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Lavoie, M., Roy, R., & Therrien, P. (2003). A growing trend toward knowledge work in Canada. Research Policy, 32(5), 827-844. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0048-7333(02)00092-6
  • Lewis, J.M., Marjoribanks, T., & Pirotta, M. (2003). Changing professions: General practitioners perceptions of autonomy on the frontline. Journal of Sociology, 39(1), 44–61 doi: . http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0004869003039001312
  • Lingard, H. (2003). The impact of individual and job characteristics on "burnout" among civil engineers in Australia and the implications for employee turnover. Construction Management and Economics, 21(1), 69–80. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0144619032000065126
  • Livingstone, D.W. (Ed.). (2009). Education and jobs: Exploring the gaps. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  • Livingstone, D. W. (Ed.). (2010). Lifelong learning in paid and unpaid work. London: Routledge.
  • Livingstone, D.W. (2012). Probing the icebergs of adult learning: Comparative findings and implications of the 1998, 2004 and 2010 Canadian surveys of formal and informal learning practices. Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education. 25(1), 47-71.
  • Livingstone, D.W., & Guile, D. (Eds.). (2012). The knowledge economy and lifelong learning: A critical reader. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
  • Livingstone, D.W., & M. Raykov, M. (2008). Workers power and intentional learning: A 2004 benchmark survey. Relations Industrielles/Industrial Relations. 63(1), 30-56. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7202/018121ar
  • Machlup, F. (1980). Knowledge, its creation, distribution, and economic significance. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Northrup, D. & Pollard, J. (2011). The 2010 national survey of learning and work: The second WALL survey: Technical Documentation. Toronto: Institute for Social Research, York University.
  • Reed, M. (1996). Expert power and control in late modernity: An empirical review and theoretical synthesis. Organization Studies, 17(4), 573-597. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069601700402
  • Savage, M., Devine, F., Cunningham, N., Taylor, M., Li, Y., Hjellbrekke, J., Le Roux, B., Friedman, S., & Miles, A. (2013). A new model of social class? Findings from the BBCs Great British class survey experiment. Sociology, 47(2), 219-250. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038513481128
  • Toffler, A. (1990). Powershift: Knowledge, wealth and violence at the edge of the 21st century. New York: Bantam.
  • Wright, E.O. (2005). Foundations of a neo-Marxist class analysis. In Wright (ed.). Approaches to class analysis. (pp. 4-30). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Volume 5, Issue: 1, Article 2, 2014

D. W. Livingstone
Interrogating professional power and recognition of specialized knowledge: a class analysis:
Note: the following are taken directly from CrossRef
  • DW Livingston & Antonie Scholtz (2016). Reconnecting class and production relations in an advanced capitalist ‘knowledge economy’: Changing class structure and class consciousness. Capital & Class, 40(3): 469. DOI: 10.1177/0309816816653882
  • Export in BibTex, RIS or text