Developing inclusive later life learning environments: insights form intersectional analysis of ageing and lesbian, gay, transgendered and bisexual identities
Christopher McAllister: Glasgow Caledonian University, United Kingdom
Read article:
Full article (pdf)
No. of pages:
Publication type:

To date there has been minimal empirical inquiry on what may constitute inclusive learning environments for older (50+ years) lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered (LGBT) adults. This paper draws upon a recent life-histories study with older LGBT adults in Scotland to consider how such environments can be developed. To do so, intersectional analysis is applied to interrogate how participants’ lived realities and sense of self are enabled and constrained by the interactions between their diverse ageing, LGBT and other identities in the particular contexts of later life, post work. The paper argues that by adopting this approach to intersectional analysis, critical educational gerontology (CEG) is equipped to more effectively realise inclusive, meaningful and potentially empowering learning environments for older LGBT adults. These will be more attuned to their later life realities, enabling them to reflect on the changing significance of being LGBT as they age, while allowing potential for personal growth and renewed sense of self.
Keywords: Age and sexuality; critical educational gerontology; intersectionality; later life learning

Volume 9, Issue: 1, Article 4, 2018

Christopher McAllister
Developing inclusive later life learning environments: insights form intersectional analysis of ageing and lesbian, gay, transgendered and bisexual identities:

Adam, B. D. (2002). From liberation to transgression and beyond: gay, lesbian and queer studies at the turn of the 21st century. In D. Richardson, & S. Seidman (Eds.) Handbook of Lesbian and Gay Studies (pp. 15-26). London: Paul Chapman. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781848608269.n2

Adams, M. (2016). An intersectional approach to services and care for LGBT elders. Journal of the American Society on Aging, 40(2), 94-100.

Ahmed, S. (2006). Queer phenomenology: objects, orientations and others. London: Duke University Press. https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822388074

Alvesson, M., & Sköldberg, K. (2009). Reflexive methodology: new vistas for qualitative research (2nd ed.). London: Sage.

Anyon, J. (Ed.). (2008). Theory and educational research: toward critical social explanation. Oxon: Routledge.

Ashe, S., Fraser, A., & Piacentini, T. (2009). Introduction: critical issues in researching ‘Hidden Communities’. eSharp, 1-9.

Bernard, M., & Scharf, T. (Eds.). (2007). Critical perspectives on ageing societies. Bristol: The Policy Press. https://doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781861348906.001.0001

Burke, P. J. (2008). Writing, power and voice: access to and participation in higher education. Changing English, 15(2), 199-210. https://doi.org/10.1080/13586840802052419

Cant, B. (Ed.). (2008). Footsteps and witnesses: lesbian and gay lifestories from Scotland. (2nd ed.). Edinburgh: Word Power Books Ltd.

Chase, S. E. (2008). Narrative inquiry: multiple lenses, approaches, voices. In N. K. Denzin, & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials (pp. 57-94). (3rd ed.). London: Sage.

Cowen, T., Stella, F., Magahy, K., Strauss, K. & Morton, J. (2011). Sanctuary, safety and solidarity lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender asylum seekers and refugees in Scotland: A report by Equality Network, BEMIS and GRAMNet. Glasgow, UK, 1-24.

Cronin, A. (2006). Sexuality in gerontology: a heteronormative presence, a queer absence. In S.V. Daatland, & S. Biggs, (Eds.), Ageing and Diversity: multiple pathways and cultural migrations (pp. 107-122). Bristol: Policy Press.

Cronin, A., & King, A. (2010). Power, inequality and identification: exploring diversity and intersectionality amongst older LGB adults. Sociology44(5), 876-892. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038038510375738

Dean, J.J., (2010). Thinking intersectionality: sexualities and the politics of multiple identities. In Y. Taylor, S. Hines, & M.E. Casey, (Eds.), Theorizing intersectionality and sexuality (pp. 119-139). Palgrave Macmillan UK. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230304093_7

do Mar Castro Varela, M., Dhawan, N., & Engel, A. (Eds.). (2011). Hegemony and Heteronormativity: Revisiting ‘The Political’ in Queer Politics (Queer Interventions). Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Limited.

Duay, D. L., & Bryan, V.C. (2006). Senior adults’ perceptions of successful ageing. Educational Gerontology, 32, 423-445. https://doi.org/10.1080/03601270600685636

Equalities Network Scotland (2015). Including intersectional identities. Retrieved March 26, 2015, from http://www.equality-network.org/our-work/intersectional/

Equalities Network Scotland. (2015a). The Scottish LGBT equality report: lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered people’s experiences of inequality in Scotland. Edinburgh: The Equality Network.

Few-Demo, A.L., Humble, Á.M., Curran, M.A., & Lloyd, S.A., (2016). Queer theory, intersectionality, and LGBT-parent families: transformative critical pedagogy in family theory. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 8(1),74-94. https://doi.org/10.1111/jftr.12127

Findsen, B. (2005). Learning Later. Florida: Krieger.

Findsen, B., & Formosa, M. (2011). Lifelong learning in later life: a handbook on older Adult Learning. Rotterdam: Sense Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6091-651-9

Fontana, A., & Frey, J. H. (2008). The interview: from neutral stance to political involvement. In N. K. Denzin, & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials (3rd ed.). (pp. 115-159) London: Sage.

Formosa, M. (2005). Feminism and critical educational gerontology: an agenda for good practice. Ageing International, 30(4), 396-411. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12126-005-1023-x

Formosa, M. (2011). Critical educational gerontology: a third statement of first principles. International Journal of Education and Ageing, 2(1), 300-317.  

Formosa, M. (2014). Lifelong learning in later life: policies and practices. In B. Schmidt-Hertha, S. J. Krašovec, & M. Formosa (Eds.), Learning Across Generations in Europe: Contemporary Issues in Older Adult Education (pp. 11- 21). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6209-902-9_2

Formosa, M., & Higgs, P. (Eds.). (2013). Social class in later life: power, identity and lifestyle. Bristol: Policy Press. https://doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781447300588.001.0001

Gaskell, T. (1999) Motivation, process and participation: The effect of context. Education and Ageing, 14(3), 261–275.

Giroux, H. A. (2009). Critical theory and educational practice. In A. Darder, M.P. Baltodano, & R.D. Torres (Eds.), The Critical Pedagogy Reader (pp. 27-50). London: Routledge.

Grace, A. P., & Hill, R. J. (2004). Positioning queer in adult education: Intervening in politics and praxis in North America. Studies in the Education of Adults36(2), 167-189. https://doi.org/10.1080/02660830.2004.11661495

Heaphy, B., Yip, A.K.T., & Thompson, D. (2004). Ageing in a non-heterosexual context. Ageing and Society, 24, 881-902. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X03001600

Hill Collins, P., & Bilge, S. (2016). Intersectionality. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Holstein, M., B., & Minkler, M. (2007). Critical gerontology: reflections for the 21st Century. In M. Bernard, & T. Scharf (Eds.), Critical Perspectives on Ageing Societies. Bristol: The Policy Press. https://doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781861348906.003.0002

Kincheloe, J., & McLaren, P. (2005). Rethinking critical theory and qualitative research. In N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), The Handbook of Qualitative Research. (3rd ed.). (pp.303-342). Thousand Oaks: Sage. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8224-5

Kincheloe, J. (2008). Knowledge and critical pedagogy: an introduction. New York: Springer.

Köllen, T. (2015). The impact of demographic factors on the way lesbian and gay employees manage their sexual orientation at work: an intersectional perspective. Management Research Review, 38(9), 992-1015. https://doi.org/10.1108/MRR-05-2014-0099

Meek, J. (2015). Queer voices in post-war Scotland: male homosexuality, religion and society. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137444110

Monro, S. (2015). Bisexuality: identities, politics and theories. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137007315

Nash, J.C. (2008). Re-thinking intersectionality. Feminist review89(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1057/fr.2008.4

Phillipson, C. (1998). Reconstructing Old Age: New agendas in social theory and practice. London: Sage.

Phillipson, C. (2000). Critical and educational gerontology: relationships and future development. In F. Glendenning (Ed.), Teaching and Learning in Later Life: Theoretical implications (pp. 25–37). Aldershot: Ashgate.

Phillipson, C. (2006). Foreword. In M. Bernard, & T. Scharf (Eds.), Critical Perspectives on Ageing Societies (pp. vii–viii). Bristol: The Policy Press.

Pugh, S. (2002). The forgotten: a community without a generation – older lesbians and gay men. In D. Richardson, & S. Seidman (Eds.), Handbook of Lesbian and Gay Studies (pp. 161-170). London: Paul Chapman. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781848608269.n11

Ruffolo, D. (2009). Post-Queer Politics (Queer Interventions). Farnham: Ashgate.

Scottish Government (2016). Scottish Social Attitudes 2015: Attitudes to discrimination and positive action. Retrieved July 31, 2017, from http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0050/00506463.pdf

Sikes, P., & Potts, A. (2008). Researching Education from Inside: Investigations from within. London: Routledge.

Stonewall. (2011). Lesbian, gay and bisexual people in later life. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from http://www.stonewall.org.uk/sites/default/files/LGB_people_in_Later_Life__2011_.pdf

Stonewall. (2014). LGBT voices: sharing our past, shaping our future. Retrieved March 23, 2015, from http://www.stonewall.org.uk/documents/lgbt_voices__history_month_1.pdf

Sumara, D., & Davis, B. (1999). Interrupting heteronormativity: toward a queer curriculum theory. Curriculum Inquiry, 29(2), 191-208. https://doi.org/10.1111/0362-6784.00121

Taylor, Y. (2005). Inclusion, exclusion, exclusive? Sexual citizenship and the repeal of section 28/2A. Sexualities, 8(3), 375–380. https://doi.org/10.1177/1363460705053339

Taylor, Y. (2009). Queer but classless? In N. Giffney, & M. O’Rourke (Eds.), The Ashgate Companion to Queer Theory (pp. 199-218). Farnham, UK: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. 

Taylor, Y. (2010). Complexities and complications: intersections of class and sexuality: In Y. Taylor, S. Hines, & M.E. Casey (Eds.), Theorizing intersectionality and sexuality (pp. 37-54). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230304093_3

Taylor, Y. (2011). Sexualities and class, Sexualities, 14(1), 3-11. https://doi.org/10.1177/1363460710390559

Tulle, E. (Ed.). (2004). Old age and agency. Nova Publishers.

Warner, M. (Ed.). (1993). Fear of a queer planet: queer politics and social theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Weston, K. (2010). Me, myself and I. In Y. Taylor, S. Hines, & M. Casey (Eds.), Theorizing intersectionality and sexuality (pp. 15-36). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230304093_2

Withnall, A. (2010). Improving Learning in Later Life. London: Routledge.

Volume 9, Issue: 1, Article 4, 2018

Christopher McAllister
Developing inclusive later life learning environments: insights form intersectional analysis of ageing and lesbian, gay, transgendered and bisexual identities:
Note: the following are taken directly from CrossRef
No citations available at the moment
Export in BibTex, RIS or text